An excavator is an engineering vehicle that is used for digging or refilling of big holes. The basic structure of an excavator comprises of the arm, the bucket and tracks. The drive and power source of the excavator is one of the major components of this equipment.
Basically, excavators run on diesel as the main power source since it produces a higher horsepower compared to gasoline. Also, diesel is more suited for heavy duty jobs to power the engine that drives the whole machine. This means that it is responsible for powering the hydraulic arm for digging and lifting mechanism as well as the tracks that are used for its mobility.
The second part of an excavator is the hydraulic mechanical arm that does most of the work. The arm comprises of two parts joined using a hinge plus a bucket at the end. The arm comprises of three hydraulic pistons with one attached to the bottom of the first arm part and the second one attached to the top of the other arm part. The third piston is normally used to facilitate the movement of the bucket both forwards and backwards, generating the digging and scooping action.
The third major part of any excavator is the track system that enables it to move forward, backwards as well as turn or spin. The tracks are wound around a system of gears which are in turn connected to a drive shaft powered by the engine. The operator controls the movement of both tracks separately to perform different maneuvers. One track is stopped while the other one is moved either backward or forward to make a turn.
A control cabin mounted on the tracks is used to houses the operator. The control cabin also houses all the control equipment. This includes the control pedals for moving the tracks as well as the levers used to control the hydraulic arm. The cabin is closed so as to protect the operator from exterior factors such as rain at the work site. Some customized excavators have a cabin that rotates a full 360 for better control.
The first task to be taken care of when operating an excavator is controlling the dozer blade. First, you have to lower the controls on the left hand into position before putting on the safety belt. The next task is controlling the bulldozer blade by moving it up and down to position the blade securely into the ground for stability. The bucket at the end of the arm is the controlled by use of the joystick to perform different operations such as digging or scooping. Safety should however be highly exercised whenever you operate an excavator to avoid any mishaps.
Source by Lee Schraner